Is a form of learning in which animals or people make a connection between two stimuli that have occurred together such that one predicts the other?

is the process by which life experience causes change in the behavior or thinking of an organism

a form of learning in which animals or people make a connection between two stimuli that have occurred together such that one predicts the other

a stimulus that causes no response at all

a stimulus that causes a response automatically, without any need for learning

the automatic response to a stimulus that occurs naturally, without any need for learning

a formerly neutral stimulus that now causes a response because of its link to an unconditioned stimulus

the response to a conditioned stimulus acquired through learning

the process by which stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus cause the same conditioned response

the process by which stimuli that are different from the conditioned stimulus fail to cause the same conditioned response

the point in the learning process at which the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus because it causes the conditioned response

the point in the learning process at which the conditioned stimulus no longer causes the conditioned response because it is no longer linked to the unconditioned stimulus

after a temporary period of inactivity, the return of a conditioned response that had become extinct

Higher-order conditioning

classical conditioning that involves three or more stimuli

conditioning that takes place via observation of others’ life experiences rather than one’s own

a form of learning in which the consequences of a voluntary behavior affect the likelihood that the behavior will recur

the observation that a behavior is more likely to be repeated if its effects are desirable but less likely to be repeated if its effects are undesirable

is a container into which animals such as pigeons or rats could be placed for the purpose of observing and recording their behavior in response to consequences

any consequence of a behavior that makes that behavior more likely to recur

involves getting something desirable

involves removing something undesirable

is an innate reinforcer that requires no learning to have a reinforcing effect because it satisfies a biological need.

Some examples of primary reinforcers are

food, water, physical touch, sex, reduction in pain or discomfort

a reinforcer that requires a learned link to a primary reinforcer to have a reinforcing effect

An example of secondary reinforcer

Money is the ultimate secondary reinforcer

patterns by which reinforcements occur in response to a particular behavior

is a pattern by which a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs

is a pattern by which a behavior is reinforced only some of the time

the number of repetitions of the behavior

is a reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced after a consistent, predictable number of occurrences

is a reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced after an inconsistent, unpredictable number of occurrences

is a reinforcement schedule in which a behavior can be reinforced after a time interval that is consistent and predictable

Variable-interval schedule

is a reinforcement schedule in which a behavior can be reinforced after a time interval that is inconsistent and unpredictable

Increase frequency of behavior by getting something good

Decrease frequency of behavior by getting something bad

Increase frequency of behavior by removing something bad

Decrease frequency of behavior by removing something good

a signal that indicates that a particular behavior will be followed by a particular consequence

is the process of gradually learning a complex behavior through the reinforcement of each of its small steps

learning that occurs as a result of observing others’ behavior and consequences rather than your own

are thought to underlie empathy and imitation and activate when a person performs or observes a particular behavior

an animal’s evolutionary predisposition to learn what is most relevant to the survival of that species

the tendency of animals’ behavior to return to innate, genetically programmed patterns

a mental diagram of the physical environment—while it initially explored when no reinforcement was available

is learning that has taken place but cannot be directly observed

the perception of a solution to a problem that results from cognitive understanding rather than from trial and error

the absence of any attempt to help oneself that results from previously learning that such attempts are useless

Is a form of learning in which an organism makes a connection between two stimuli that have occurred together such that one predicts the other?

c) A conditioned response is a form of learning in which animals or people make a connection between two stimuli that have occurred together such that one predicts the other.

What learning occurs when a connection is made between two stimuli?

Classical conditioning refers to learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (e.g., a tone) becomes associated with a stimulus (e.g., food) that naturally produces a behaviour. After the association is learned, the previously neutral stimulus is sufficient to produce the behaviour.

Is the process by which stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus cause the same conditioned response?

Stimulus generalization: The tendency for stimuli that is similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response.
Associative learning is defined as learning about the relationship between two separate stimuli, where the stimuli might range from concrete objects and events to abstract concepts, such as time, location, context, or categories. From: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2020.