What is the term for the process by which information is initially recorded?

Brain storming Questions
<>What is memory?
<> Are there different kinds of memory?
<> What are the biological bases of memory?
4.1.1 Meaning and Processes of Memory
Memory is the retention of information/what is learned earlier over time. It is the way in which we record the past for later use in the present. Memory is a blanket label for a large number of processes that form the bridges between our past and our present. To learn about the nature of memory, it is useful to separate the process from the structure

What is the term for the process by which information is initially recorded?

Processes of Memory
Brainstorming Question
<>How do you form the memory of events you sense?
Memory process is the mental activities we perform to put information into memory, to keep it there, and to make use of it later. This involves three basic steps:
a) Encoding: Taken from computer science, the term encoding refers to the form (i.e. the code) in which an item of information is to be placed in memory. It is the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory. In encoding we transform a sensory input into a form or a memory code that can be further processed.
b) Storage: To be remembered the encoded experience must leave some record in the nervous system (the memory trace); it must be squirreled away and held in some more or less enduring form for later use. This is what memory specialists mean when they speak
of placing information in storage. It is the location in memory system in which material is saved. Storage is the persistence of information in memory.
c) Retrieval: is the point at which one tries to remember to dredge up a particular memory trace from among all the others we have stored. In retrieval, material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness and used.Failure to remember can result from problems during any of the three phases of the memory process. If, for example, you encode a new item of information only as a sound pattern, there would be no memory trace of its meaning. If both the sound and the meaning were encoded and held for the length of the retention interval, the item might have been misfiled in memory. If so, the item might be impossible to retrieve even though it is still stored in
Memory is the process by which information is encoded (phase1), stored (phase 2) and later retrieved (phase 3).

<> How do you define memory?
<> What is/are the a) memory processes proposed by stage model of memory?

4.1.2 Stages/Structure of Memory
Memory structure is the nature of memory storage itself- how information is represented in memory and how long it lasts and how it is organized. Although people usually refer to memory as a single faculty, the term memory actually covers a complex collection of abilities and processes.

The cognitive perspective has dominated psychology‘s view of memory for the past years although in recent years it has become integrated with understanding of the neuro-psychology of memory. Many cognitive psychologists relate the mind to an information processor, along
the lines of a digital computer that takes items of information in; processes them in steps or stages, and then produces an output.Consider how the computer works; First, it takes in information (for instance via keystrokes)
and translates the information into an electronic language, then the computer permanently stores the information on a disc, and finally it retrieves the information (file) stored on a disc on to a working memory (which also receives new information from the keyboard) and the
information is put on to the screen as part of the working memory.

Models of memory based on this idea are Information processing theories. Like the computer, we also store vast amounts of information in our memory store house. From this storehouse, we can retrieve some information onto a limited capacity working memory, which also receives information from our current experience. Part of this working memory is displayed on the mental ―screen‖ we call consciousness. A number of such models of memory have been proposed. One of the most important and influential of these is the one
developed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968). According to Atkinson and Shiffrin, memory has three structures:

1) Sensory Memory/Sensory Register: It is the entry way to memory. It is the first information storage area. Sensory memory acts as a holding bin, retaining information until we can select items for attention from the stream of stimuli bombarding our senses.It gives us a brief time to decide whether information is extraneous or important. Sensory memory includes a number of separate subsystems, as many as there are senses. It can hold virtually all the information reaching our senses for a brief time.For instance, visual images (Iconic memory) remain in the visual system for a maximum of
one second. Auditory images (Echoic memory) remain in the auditory system for a slightly longer time, by most estimates up to two second or so. The information stored sensory in memory is a fairly accurate representation of the environmental information but unprocessed.Most information briefly held in the sensory memory simply decays from the register.
However, some of the information that has got attention and recognition pass on short-term memory for further processing.
2) Short-term Memory: is part of our memory that holds the contents of our attention.Unlike sensory memories, short-term memories are not brief replicas of the environmental message. Instead, they consist of the by-products or end results of perceptual analysis. STM is important in a variety of tasks such as thinking, reading, speaking, and problem solving.
There are various terms used to refer to this stage of memory, including working memory,immediate memory, active memory, and primary memory.
Brainstorming Question
>> Why do we call STM as a working memory?
Short term memory is distinguished by four characteristics:
It is active– information remains in STM only so long as the person is consciously processing, examining, or manipulating it. People use STM as a ―workspace‖ to process new
information and to call up relevant information from LTM.
Rapid accessibility – Information in STM is readily available for use. In this respect, the difference between STM and LTM is the difference between pulling a file from the top of a desk versus searching for it in a file drawer, or between searching for information in an open computer file versus file stored on the hard drive.
Preserves the temporal sequence of information- STM usually helps us to maintain the information in sequential manner for a temporary period of time. It keeps the information fresh until it goes to further analysis and stored in LTM in meaningful way.
Limited capacity– Years ago, George Miller (1956) estimated the capacity of STM to be ―the magic number seven plus or minus 2‖. That is, on the average, people can hold about seven pieces of information in STM at a time; with a normal range from five to nine items. Some researchers have questioned whether Miller‘s magical number is so magical after all.
Everyone agrees, however, that the number of items that short-term memory can handle at any one time is small. According to most models of memory, we overcome this problem, by grouping small groups of information into larger units or chunks. Chunking is the grouping or ―packing‖ of information into higher order units that can be remembered as single units. Chunking expands working memory by making large amounts of information more manageable. The real capacity of short-term memory, therefore, is not a few bits of information but a few chunks.
A chunk may be a word, a phrase, a sentence, or even a visual image, and it depends on previous experience. STM memory holds information (sounds, visual images, words, and sentences and so on)
received from SM for up to about 30 seconds by most estimates. It is possible to prolong STM indefinitely by rehearsal- the conscious repetition of information. Material in STM is easily displaced unless we do something to keep it there.

  1. Long Term Memory
    It is a memory system used for the relatively permanent storage of meaningful information. The capacity of LTM seems to have no practical limits. The vast amount of information stored in LTM enables us to learn, get around in the environment, and build a sense of identity and personal history. LTM stores information for indefinite periods. It may last for days, months, years, or even a lifetime.

The LTM is assumed to be composed of different sub systems:
Declarative/ explicit memory– the conscious recollection of information such as specific facts or events that can be verbally communicated. It is further subdivided into semantic and episodic memories.
Semantic memory– factual knowledge like the meaning of words, concepts and our ability to do math. They are internal representations of the world, independent of any particular context.
Episodic memory– memories for events and situations from personal experience. They are internal representations of personally experienced events.
Non-declarative/ implicit memory– refers to a variety of phenomena of memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without that experience being consciously recollected. One of the most important kinds of implicit memory is procedural memory. It is the ―how to‖ knowledge of procedures or skills: Knowing how to comb your hair, use a pencil, or swim.

Serial Position Effect

The three-box model of memory is often invoked to explain interesting phenomenon called the serial position effect. If you are shown a list of items and are then asked immediately to recall them, your retention of any particular item will depend on its position in the list. That is, recall will be best for items at the beginning of the list (the primacy effect) and at the end of the list (the recency effect). When retention of all the items is plotted, the result will be a
U-shaped curve.A serial position effect occurs when you are introduced to a lot of people at a party and find you can recall the names of the first few people you met and the last, but almost no one in between.
According to the three-box model, the first few items on a list are remembered well because short-term memory was relatively ―empty‖ when they entered, so these items did not have to compete with others to make it into long term memory. They were thoroughly processed, so they remain memorable.
The last few items are remembered for a different reason: At the time of recall, they are still sitting in STM. The items in the middle of the list, however, are not so well retained because by the time they get into short-term memory, it is already crowded. As a result many of these items drop out of short-term memory before they can be stored in long-term memory.
<>What account for the serial-position effect?

4.1.3 Factors Affecting Memory
Memory as stated already, is a process which includes learning, retention and remembering.As such all the three processes are important for good memory.
Eleven Factors that Influence Memory Process in Humans are as follows:
a. Ability to retain: This depends upon good memory traces left in the brain by past experiences.
b. Good health: A person with good health can retain the learnt material better than a person with poor health.
c. Age of the learner: Youngsters can remember better than the aged.
d. Maturity: Very young children cannot retain and remember complex material.
e. Will to remember: Willingness to remember helps for better retention.
f. Intelligence: More intelligent person will have better memory than a dull person,
g. Interest: If a person has more interest, he will learn and retain better.
h. Over learning: Experiments have proved that over learning will lead to better memory.
i. Speed of learning: Quicker learning leads to better retention,
j. Meaningfulness of the material: Meaningful materials remain in our memory for longer period than for nonsense material,
k. Sleep or rest: Sleep or rest immediately after learning strengthens connections in the brain and helps for clear memory.

What is the initial process of recording information?

Encoding—the initial registration of information—is essential in the learning and memory process. Unless an event is encoded in some fashion, it will not be successfully remembered later.

What term refers to the process by which information is initially recorded stored and retrieved?

memory. the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved. three system approach to memory. sensory memory, shot-term memory (working memory), long-term memory.

What is the process of getting information called?

We get information into our brains through a process called encoding, which is the input of information into the memory system. Once we receive sensory information from the environment, our brains label or code it. We organize the information with other similar information and connect new concepts to existing concepts.

Which term refers to the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory quizlet?

The three elements of information processing are encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding is the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory.