Which of the following is a common quality of both paraphrasing and reflection of feeling?

says that you understand the client’s emotions (conscious or unconscious) Deeper client disclosure, Greater awareness of feelings Normalizes emotions Deepens the relationship

Are feelings implicit or explicit in client's statements

1.Identify the feelings Imagine how the client is feeling Nonverbals are major clues! 2.Articulate the underlying emotions Make a statement that mirrors emotions

When do primary emotions emerge? Secondary emotions?

Primary emotions emerge in the first six months of life, secondary or self-conscious emotions emerge starting about 18 months to 2 years.

Common Problems in Reflecting Feelings?

Waiting too long to reflect. Turning a reflection into a question. Combining reflections and open questions. Using the word “feel” vs. “think” Overshooting Undershooting , Parroting , Making reflections too long, Focusing on the wrong person or the wrong topic

Tips on Reflecting Feelings?

Use invitational skills and paraphrasing first, don’t expect to hear feelings immediately. Imagine yourself in the client’s shoes. Don’t join the client in blaming others or taking sides.

What is the next step after reflecting feelings?

How are people's perceptions and values formed?

Formed by culture, history, present needs family, preferences, cognitions, experiences. We don’t see things as they are; we see things as we are.

What influences someone's world view?

Influenced by sex race/ethnicity Age SES spirituality/religion,

Helps the client understand the problem Lets the client know that the counselor understands the way the client views the world/life Increase empathic bond between the helper and the client

Lazarus Inner Circle Strategy

Challenging client to go deeper Level A Very personal issues Levels B, C, & D Increasingly secretive issues Level E Public issues

Meanings are implicit; First, understand the content and feelings Fully comprehend the situation Awareness of the client ‘s beliefs & values Use intuitive thinking

Quick Tips for Reflecting Meaning 

Use Open questions, Minimal Encouragers, Reflection of Feeling, then Reflection of Meaning Be patient! Listen long enough to understand meaning. Ask: What is the client telling me? Think about and tie in client’s background. Respond to last thing the client said. Attend to your intuition and follow your hunches.

Synopsis of information gathered from paraphrasing and reflecting feelings and meanings. Ongoing, organized recap of any of the following , Content Major feelings , Meaning issues and themes, Future plans

is used when the helper wants to direct the client to key issues and to accept responsibility for the goal

is used to make connections among the content, emotions, or meaning expressed over time.

is used to when the helper ties up loose ends and moves the client to a new topic

A summary that reviews progress, outlines plans for the next sessions, instills hope

Nonjudgmental Listening Cycle (NLC)

Repeating pattern of basic helping skills used with the introduction of each new topic. Positive regard is essential within the NLC: an active demonstration of nonjudgment. Respond to the last thing the client said. Too many questions can stall this process. `

How long should assessment last throughout the process of counseling?

Informal vs. Formal assessment

Informal assessment Observation Listening Formal assessment Testing, Questionnaires, Forms

1. Helps determine if the client is amendable to treatment 2. Provides crucial information to plan realistic goals 3. Helps clients discover events related to the problem 5. Uniqueness of each individual (Person X Environment) Can highlight strengths, not just weakness and pathology , Helps client become aware of important problems 6. Uncover potential for violence, abuse, suicide 10. Understand cultural relevance

What to observe about client during assessment 

Speech, clothing, grooming, posture build, gait, facial expression, body movements, general appearance, helper’s own feelings

Therapeutic when family problem are the presenting concern Valuable when family patterns (attitudes) seem to be contributing to the presenting concern Helpful when there is a need to assess for emotional support

Why create goals with client?

separates the problem into manageable units Source of hope motivation for clients Keeps counseling on a specific path Goal achievement indicates when the work is done or when future sessions can move on to new problems

Should goals be focus of every session?

What must client take responsibility for?

for the problem his or her feelings on the goal

Traits of behavioral goals?

Concrete Measurable Observable Behavioral goals demonstrate to outside interests the effectiveness of the helping relationship

Goals do not need to be behavioral if they are?

Specific & Clear Simple & Concrete Positively stated

How to "boil down" the problem to a goal

Step One: Summarize and Enumerating the Issues Step Two: Ask the Client to Identify the Most Crucial Issues Step Three: Selecting the Focal Problem Only one or two at a time Step Four: Changing the Problem to a Goal Solution-focused questioning Step Five: Making Sure Client and Helper Are Clear and in Agreement

applying solution skills will begin the change process Action methods introduced by the helper Used to help clients find solutions to problems

1. Giving advice 2. Giving information 3. Brainstorming 4. Alternate interpretation

When to give advice to client?

What helper must have in order to give advice?

Have knowledge about issue client is facing (data, facts, or resources) Understand helper’s experience is different from the client’s experience Outline the risks and opportunities Understand client’s history

When is giving advice inappropriate?

Purpose is to influence others Client has information available to solve problem without advice Advice conflicts with client’s upbringing, values, or culture

When to give information?

Do it sparingly Supplying facts to help a client reach out resources (e.g., referrals to Social Security). May include correcting erroneous information about topics or groups of people May be psychoeducational

Freewheeling: Generate as many solutions as possible Creativity flows best –nonjudgmental atmosphere Quantity is more important than quality Piggybacking encouraged-building on ideas Production blocking? Brain writing? Each person must participate

Three Steps to brainstorm Challenge assumptions and identify the problems correctly Generating ideas Evaluating/Choosing a potential solution

What is an alternative interpretation?

Encourage client that there are many ways to look at a problem. Helpful ways Self-defeating ways Particularly useful when client is catastrophizing; Client expects the event to be devastating before knowing what the outcome will be.

How to teach a client to use an alternative interpretation?

1.Helper listens to the problem and then explains alternate interpretation. 2.Client asked to make list of 3-4 other interpretations that fit the facts as well as the catastrophic conclusion. 3.Helper assigns homework for client to develop 3-4 alternate explanations to the first interpretation of any disturbing event occurring between sessions

What are the 8 primary emotions? 3 other categories of emotions?

joy, sadness, anger, guilt/shame, fear, disgust, surprise, interest/excitement
feelings of weakness, feelings of strength, feelings of general distress

The philosophy that human beings construct their own view of the world. Humans actively reinterept the world consistent with their beliefs Don't need to understand what really happened, but how the client interprets its.

What is the difference between paraphrasing and reflection of feeling?

The difference between paraphrasing and reflective listening is that in paraphrasing you are only summarizing what the victim has said. With reflective listening, you are going beyond summarizing to identifying feelings that the person may not have identified, but their words and attitudes point to such feelings.

What is an example of reflection of feeling?

For example, they might have hunched their shoulders as they said, 'I was so scared; I didn't know what to do. ' We might reflect that back by hunching our own shoulders, mirroring their body language while also saying 'I felt so scared; I didn't know what to do. '

What is reflection of feeling in communication?

a statement made by a therapist or counselor that is intended to highlight the feelings or attitudes implicitly expressed in a client's communication and to draw them out so that they can be clarified. Also called reflection response.

What is reflection of feeling and content?

Right on! REFLECTING CONTENT: Listening accurately to another person and reflecting the essence of the content to the other in your own words. REFLECTING FEELINGS: Listening accurately to another person and reflecting the feeling component of the communication to the other in your own words.