Issues such as common ground and directives relate to an aspect of language called

Errors during speaking in which sounds or entire words are rearranged between tow or more different words. Slips of the tongue are informative because they reveal people's extensive knowledge about the sounds, structure and meaning of the language that they are speaking.

The basic unit of meaning in language. For example the word reactivated actually contains four morpheme re/active/ate/end with each segment conveying meaning.

Communication using visible movements of any part of the body.

Embodied Cognition Approach

The proposal that people often use their own bodies and motor actions in order to express their abstract thoughts and knowledge.

In psycholinguistics the overage meaning of a message.

In language production, the difficulty of arranging words in an ordered, linear sequence.

In language, the melody of an utterance, its intonation, rhythm, and emphasis.

Interrelated units of language that are longer than a sentence.

In language, a category of discourse in which someone describes a series of actual or fictional events.

In language, the social rules and world knowledge that allow speakers to successfully communicate messages to other people.

A situation where the people in a conversation share similar background knowledge, schemas, and perspectives. These elements of common ground are necessary for mutual understanding.

In language, a sentence that asks someone to do something.

In language, resolving an interpersonal situation of problem by using a very obvious statement or question.

In language, using subtle suggestions to resolve and interpersonal problem rather than stating the request in a straightforward manner.

In linguistics, mental structures that simplify reality. frames tend to structure what counts as facts. George Lakoff uses this term in discussing how language can structure people's thinking.

The brief, immediate memory for the limited amount of material that a person is currently processing. Part of working memory also actively coordinates ongoing mental activities. In the current research, the term working memory is more popular than a similar but older term, short term memory.

The part of working memory that processes a limited number of sounds for a short period of time. The phonological loop processes language and other sounds that a person hears, as well as the sounds that they make. It is also active when he or she silently sounds out a word during reading.

The component of working memory that processes both visual and spatial information. The visuospatial sketchpad has also been known as visuospatial working memory and short term visual memory.

The component of working memory that integrates information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, the episodic buffer, and long term memory. The central executive also plays a role in attention, planning and coordinating other cognitive activities.

Beginning a formal writing project by generating a list of ideas. Prewriting is difficult and strategic-much different from many relatively automatic language tasks.

Someone who is fluent in two different languages.

Someone who uses more than two languages; psycholinguists often use the term bilingual to include multilinguals.

Simultaneous bilingualism

In linguistics, a term referring to people who learned two languages at the same time during childhood

In linguistics, a term referring to people who speak two or more languages but did not learn them at the same time. Their native language is referred to as their first language, and the non-native language that they acquire is their second language.

In linguistics, the initial language that a person learned; this term is typically applies to someone who later learned a different language.

In linguistics, the second language that a person learned; this term is typically applied to someone who first learned a different language.

Implicit Association Test (IAT)

A research tool based on the principle that people can mentally pair two related words together much more easily than they can pair two unrelated words. The IAT is useful in assessing stereotypes, such as stereotypes about gender.

Knowledge about the form and structure of language, as opposed to knowledge about language comprehension. On many measures of metalinguistic skill but not all of them bilinguals outperform monolinguals.

A disorder that includes memory problems and other cognitive deficits. Individuals with dementia typically have difficulty estimating their memory abilities.

In psycholinguistics the age at which a person begins to learn a second language.

Critical Period Hypothesis

In linguistics, the proposal that the ability to acquire a new language is strictly limited to a specific period of life. The critical period hypothesis proposes that individuals who have already reached a specified age-perhaps early puberty-will no longer be able to acquire a new language with native like fluency. In general, the research does not support this hypothesis.

The sounds of a person's speech. People who acquire a second language during childhood are more likely to pronounce words like a native speaker of that language, compared to people who attempt to learn that language later in life

The process of converting a text written in one language into a second written language.

The process of converting a spoken message in one language into a second spoken (or signed) language.

Slip of tongue error types

Sound (snow flurries/flow snurries) Morpheme (self destruct instruction/self instruct destruction Words (writing a letter to my mother/ writing a mother to my letter)

Dell's Model of Word Production

* highly interactive * upward and downward flow * predicts and explains paraphasias * helps explain phonemic cueing * helps explain semantic feature analysis therapy

Do researchers agree about whether grammatical, semantic and phonological information about a word is accessed simultaneously or at different times?

Gestures can help remember specific words. True/False

According to Dell, why to slip of the tongue errors occur?

Because a speech sound other than the intended is highly activated and is explained via PDP with spreading activation.

Which do researchers study more - language production or language comprehension?

Language comprehension is studied more.

What does speaking require?

To overcome the linearization problem and to plan the prosody of their message.

A narrative is a type of ____ that includes _________

discourse/specified story components.

The social context of language production includes:

common ground/directives/framing

Stats on bilingualism and dementia are...

Bilingual adults develop dementia later than monolingual adults with an average age of diagnosis at 75.5 versus 71.4 with the monolinguals having an average of 1.6 more years of formal education.

What are the disadvantages of bilingualism?

Subtly alter pronouncing speech sounds in both languages; process language slightly slower; slightly smaller vocabulary

What are the advantages of bilingualism?

acquire more expertise in native language; awareness that assigned names to concepts are arbitrary; excel at paying selective attention to subtle language tasks like semantics; better at following complicated instructions and performing tasks with changing instructions; better at concept formation tasks and non verbal intelligence; more sensitive to some pragmatic aspects of language.

What does research show when learning an other language when you're older?

Age of acquisition is not related to learning vocabulary but it is related to phonology (accent) and it can be related to grammar comprehension when first language is different than English (like Chinese that uses symbols for an entire word) but there is no relationship when it is similar.

How much of the world's population is bilingual?

What are important determinants of bilingual skills?

If people are fluent in a second language, they tend to be more positive toward people who speak that language. True/False

____________typically perform better than bilingual students and foreign language teachers on two tasks that assess working memory.

Simultaneous interpreters

Ronald Kellogg and colleagues

components of working memory active during writing; phonological loop active during writing since longer to remember syllables given to them while writing; visuospatial sketchpad active when remembering concrete nouns but not abstract or locations.

Writing revisions study: experts focused on organization, focus and transition between ideas while students revised one sentence at a time and fixate on grammar/spelling.

Proofreading - you can proofread someone else's writing more accurately than your own.

According to research by Oppenheimer, people judge writers to be more intelligent if they use what type of words?

Sentence generation - fluent phases alternate with hesitant phases.

Dell (Slip of the Tongue)

Slip of the tongue errors occur because a speech sound other than the one intended is highly activated and explain these errors in terms of Parallel Distributed Processing model with spreading activation.

Four stages in producing a sentence:

1. working out the gist 2. formulating general sentence structure 3. word choice 4. articulating phonemes (all these processes overlap in time)

What additional challenges does speaking add over writing?

Speaking requires you to overcome the linearization problem and to plan the prosody of the message.

What does the social context of language production include?

The use of common ground, directives and framing.

How much time do students spend on revision?

Consistently less than 10% though they perceive that they spent about 30%.

Fedorenko, Behr, and Kanwisher

Used Language Localizer task to create linguistic map using fMRI; identified regions of left frontal lop for language tasks but not for math or using spatial working memory.

Fedorenko, Castanon, Kanwisher

Using fMRI and language localizer task system located portions of left hemisphere that process specific linguistic information

Surface Meaning vs. Intended Meaning

Ex: Looking at an ad: Surface meaning : a list of all the objects and people in the ad. Intended meaning : the take home message. There's a cultural message that only 'makes sense' when it resonates with certain deeply held belief systems

For which characteristics of language does age of acquisition of a second language?

Which characteristics of language does age of acquisition of a second language matter most? The age of acquisition of a second language affects: the speaker's accent in the second language.

What is the most controversial issue concerning bilingualism and age of acquisition Group of answer choices?

What is the most controversial issue concerning bilingualism and age of acquisition? With respect to the mastery of grammar, do people who acquired a second language as adults differ from people who acquired a second language as children? argued that bilingualism produced a cognitive deficit.

What can we conclude about the relationship between attitudes and proficiency in a second language quizlet?

What can we conclude about the relationship between attitudes and proficiency in a second language? People who are positive toward speakers of another language are likely to learn that language more quickly than those who are neutral or negative about that group.

How is the concept of GIST relevant when you are planning to speak a sentence quizlet?

How is the concept of gist relevant when you are planning to speak a sentence? The gist is the overall meaning of a message that we want to convey. Your read about a recent study involving bilingual Arab Israeli students who were enrolled at a university in Israel.